Books shelved as indian-authors: 2 States: The Story of My Marriage by Chetan (shelved times as indian-authors) .. The Great Indian Novel (Paperback). But when it comes to this, I've noticed that the Indian authors are The novel examines issues of religion, caste, loyalty, corruption and poverty. Sudeep Nagarkar All Novels free pdf download Book Lists, Reading Lists, Free Novels, .. An anthology of love stories by Indian authors Reading Challenge.
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It is very useful for those out there,who keep on searching eBook in many website's & fails to find so. I had the habit of downloading intended ebooks in website. The Guide is a novel written in English by the Indian author R. K. Narayan. Like most of his works, the novel is based on Malgudi, the. Why you should read it: Cuckold is a novel based in 16th century India, dealing with the lives of a very powerful ruling family. The novel stands.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The Republic of India has twenty two officially recognized languages. The earliest works of Indian literature were orally transmitted. Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid second to mid first millennium BCE. Sanskrit literature begins with the oral literature of the Rig Veda a collection of sacred hymns, Yajur Veda is the Veda of prose, Sema Veda is the Veda of melody and chants, Atharva Veda is the collection of seven hundred and thirty hymns with about six thousands mantras. The Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata appeared towards the end of the first millennium before Common Era.
In this epic supernatural series, Jules the vampire meets Luca the werewolf and her whole world is turned upside-down. In this Romeo and Juliet romance, a The year is and human population has reached 10 billion. In a densely populated mega city, blighted by social problems, unemployment and declining living standards, a young man desperately seeks advice from his imprisoned uncle, an ex politician and Professor of Biology and a man many still Arthur Godley, proprietor of Godley's Garden Gnomes and Godley Investments meets his maker in unusual circumstances and, in the process, learns a few costly lessons.
All on Free-Ebooks. Gabriel Joshua has risen from the Makoko slums of Lagos, Nigeria, to become an internationally acclaimed speaker on African poverty, the economy, terrorism, corruption and fraud. But being a hero for some means becoming an enemy to others who see him as a threat to their own power. An African Huge amounts of international aid money are being stolen by those at the heart of the political establishment.
Ex politician, Jim Smith, threatened and harassed into fleeing abroad for accusations of fraud returns to renew his campaign. The technology, politicians, intelligence agencies WIN the ultimate Audiobook experience! Enter here no purchase necessary. Join Now Login. Sort by: Showing results: Apr Downloads: Harajuku Sunday S. In its early stages, Indian English Literature was influenced by the Western novel.
Early Indian writers used English unadulterated by Indian words to convey an experience which was essentially Indian. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote Rajmohan's Wife and published it in ; it is the first Indian English novel proper and it is also viewed as the first birth of the Indian English fiction.
Or The Enchanted Fruit The early fiction published in English was dominated by historical themes and there presentation of Indian life. The steady growth of Indian fiction in English continued till Kanthapura is the story of a village with that name. It presents the Gandhian ideology of non-violence and abolition of untouchability.
Like its spirit, the form and style of Kanthapura also follow the Indian tradition proved to be a turning point in the history of Indian novel in English. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English. India's only Nobel laureate in literature was Tagore who became India's first Nobel laureate for the work Gitanjali in The themes in Indian English fiction were Freedom movement, history, and partition, regional and cultural differences.
The theme of cultural confrontation between the East and West also has been a very dominant theme of Indian Fiction. However, Indian English fiction also has expressed a situation of common experience, the urban experience. It was during the Gandhian period that Indian English fiction discovered the most significant themes such as the ordeal of the freedom struggle, East-West relationship, the communal problem and the plight of the untouchables, the landless poor, the economically exploited.
Venkataramani was an Indian lawyer and an acclaimed writer in English.
Venkataramani wrote mainly on South Indian rural life and the Indian Independence movement. Chaudhuri was an Indian Bengali-English writer and man of letter. Post Independence Indian fiction retained the momentum that had been gained during the Gandhian Age. Bhabani Bhatacharya was an Indian writer, of Bengali origin, who wrote social-realist fiction. Bhatacharya fiction set in historically and socially realistic contexts. Manohar Malgonkar was an Indian author of both fiction and nonfiction in the English languages.
Khushwant Singh was an Indian author, lawyer, diplomat, journalist and politician. Ram Nath Kak, a Kashmiri veterinarian, wrote his autobiography Autumn Leaves, which is one of the most vivid portraits of life in twentieth century Kashmir and has become a sort of a classic. Narayan — contributed over many decades and continued to write till his death. Similar to the way Thomas Hardy used Wessex, Narayan created the fictitious town of Malgudi where he set his novels, however, feels that they could vividly understand the Indian experience.
Simultaneously with Narayan's pastoral idylls, a very different writer, Mulk Raj Anand was similarly gaining recognition for his writing set in rural India, but his stories were harsher, and engaged, sometimes brutally, with divisions of caste, class and religion.
He is a novelist seriously interested in existential dilemmas and equally acutely aware of both the problems of Post- Independence Indian society and the implications of the East- West encounter.
Kamala Markandaya, is the East- West encounter takes two forms- first, a direct relationship between Indian and British characters; and secondly the impact of the modern urban culture brought in by the British rule on traditional Indian life. Her A Silence of Desire shows the problems of gender difference between genders. Her Possession evokes the conflict of Eastern and Western values.
The novels also expresses with the theme of anti- patriarchal rage, and quest for identity. Rushdie combines magical realism with historical fiction. Rushdie works are Grimus , a science fiction tale, Shame , a political turmoil in Pakistan, and The satanic verse , a controversial work. Rushdie inaugurated an era of postmodernism, fantasy, and magic realism in Indian English fiction.
Nayantara Sahgal was one of the first female Indian writers in English to receive wide recognition. He is also the author of a historical novel A Flight of Pigeons, which is based on an episode during the Indian Rebellion of The literary endeavours of diasporic women writers form is another feature of the Indian fiction in English.
There have been NRI writers like Anita Desai and Jhabwalla since the beginning but their number increased in the last two decades. Their fiction explores the life experiences of the immigrants. They search for their roots in their past memories, myths and in exotic India. They also graphically and hauntingly depict the alienation of an immigrants experience in an alien land.
The immigrant experience, of being away from homeland and facing the problems of adjustment in another land are authentically narrated in diasporic fiction. During , the period was called New fiction. In this period a breed of new novelists emerged. Her works probe into the urban middle class life as well as into the condition of the lower classes which barely survive on respectability.
Being a self- confessed fan of Jane Austen, his attention is on the story, its details and its twists and turns. Vikram Seth is notable both as an accomplished novelist and poet. Ghosh's latest work of fiction is River of Smoke Shashi Tharoor, was a Indian politician and a former diplomant, in his The Great Indian Novel , follows a story-telling though in a satirical mode as in the Mahabharata drawing his ideas by going back and forth in time.
His work as UN official living outside India has given him a vantage point that helps construct an objective Indianness. Vikram Chandra is another author who shuffles between India and the United States and has received critical acclaim for his first novel Red Earth and Pouring Rain and collection of short stories Love and Longing in Bombay Chandra is a renowned journalist and the author of The Srinagar Conspiracy Suketu Mehta is another writer currently based in the United States who authored Maximum City , an autobiographical account of his experiences in the city of Mumbai.
Recent writers in India such as Arundhati Roy and David Davidar show a direction towards contextuality and rootedness in their works. Arundhati Roy, a trained architect and the Booker prize winner for her The God of Small Things, calls herself a home grown writer. Her award winning book is set in the immensely physical landscape of Kerala. In both the books, geography and politics are integral to the narrative.
In his novel Lament of Mohini , Shreekumar Varma touches upon the unique matriarchal system and the sammandham system of marriage as he writes about the Namboodiris and the aristocrats of Kerala. Similarly, Arnab Jan Deka, a trained engineer and jurist, writes about both physical and ethereal existentialism on the banks of the mighty river Brahmaputra, and his co-authored book of poetry with British poet-novelist Tess Joyce appropriately titled A Stanza of Sunlight on the Banks of Brahmaputra published from both India and Britain which is set under this backdrop evokes the spirit of flowing nature of life.
His most recent book Brahmaputra and beyond: Linking Assam to the World made a conscious effort to connect to a world divided by racial, geographic, linguistic, cultural and political prejudices.
His highly acclaimed short story collection The Mexican Sweetheart and other stories was another landmark book of this genre. The stories and novels of Ratan Lal Basu reflect the conditions of tribal people and hill people of West Bengal and the adjacent states of Sikkim, Bhutan and Nepal. Many of his short stories reflect the political turmoil of West Bengal since the Naxalite movement of the s. In Hemingway style language the author takes the reader into the dreamland of nature and people who are inexorably associated with nature.
He worked in various positions in London, Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi. Tharoor boarded at Montfort School, Yercaud, in and studying at the Campion School —68 , his high school years at St. Xavier's Collegiate School in Calcutta — At Fletcher, he also helped found and was the first editor of the Fletcher Forum of International Affairs.
He has awarded an honorary D. Until , he was a career official at the United Nations, rising to the rank of Under- Secretary General for Communications and Public Information in He announced his retirement after finishing second in the selection for U. Secretary-General to Ban Ki-moon. Tharoor has written numerous books in English. Tharoor has been a columnist in each of India's three best known English newspapers, The Hindu newspaper — , A weekly column, Shashi on Sunday, in the Times of India January — December Following that resignation as Minister of State for External Affairs, he began a fortnightly column on foreign policy issues in the Deccan Chronicle.
Previously he was a columnist for the Gentleman magazine and the Indian Express newspaper, as well as a frequent contributor to Newsweek International and the International Herald Tribune. His monthly column, India Reawakening, distributed by Project Syndicate, appears in 80 newspapers around the world.
Tharoor began writing at the age of six, and his first published story appeared in the Sunday edition The Free Press Journal, in Mumbai. His World War II adventure novel Operation bellows, inspired by the Biggles books, was serialised in the Junior Statesman starting a week before his 11th birthday.
Each of his books has been a bestseller in India.
The Great Indian Novel is in its fourty second edition, and a Silver Jubilee special edition was issued on the book twenty fifth anniversaries, September , from Viking Pengun India. It sold over 50, copies in eight hardback reprints within six months of publication.
Victor Mallet in Financial Times said Tharoor wants us to understand the origins of the difficulties that confronted India after , attributing most of that to colonialism. The New Statesman said it is an important read as talks of Empire 2: Shashi Tharoor was the award winning author of eleven books, as well as hundreds of articles and book reviews in a wide range of publication, both in India and overseas.
His seven non-fiction consist of Reasons of State , India: From Midnight to the Millennium , Nehru: India and the World of the 21st Century , his other two Illustrated books are Kerala: India and the World of the 21st Century , India: The British Empire in India Its UK edition is Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India The Great Indian Novel is a satirical novel. The phrase Great Indian Novel, is an allusion to the long-standing idea of the Great American Novel and is also a pun, roughly translating Mahabharata Maha means great; Bharata means India.
The Mahabharata, which is not a novel but an epic poem, can be understood, according to Tharoor, to represent Hinduism's greatest literary achievement and thus serves as an appropriate paradigm in which to frame a retelling of recent Indian history.
A significant characteristic of Tharoor's version of the story is the emphasis on the older generations e. It is a fictional work that takes the story of the Mahabharata, the epic of Hindu mythology, and recasts and resets it in the context of the Indian Independence Movement, the first three decades post-independence. The organisation of the sections and chapters of the novel mirrors the organisation of the Mahabharata to themes and events of the mirrored sections of the epic.
The novel has 18 books, just as the Mahabharata has 18 books and the Battle of Kurukshetra lasted for 18 days. The mythical story of India is retold as a history of Indian independence and subsequent history, up through the s. The work includes numerous puns and allusions to famous works about India, such as those by Rudyard Kipling, Paul Scott, and E.
The Mahabharata is an epic tale describing the historical dynastic struggle over the throne of the kingdom of Hastinapur between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, two branches of the heirs of the King Shantanu. In his novel, Tharoor recasts the story of the nascent Indian democracy as a struggle between groups and individuals closely related by their personal and political histories.
Through his cantankerous narrator, Tharoor takes an irreverent tone towards figures such as Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, who are ordinarily treated with reverence by Indians.
The Great Indian Novel has eighteen books, just like Mahabharata has eighteen books. First book: Second book: Third book: Fourth book: Fifth book: Sixth book: Seventh book: Eighth book: Ninth Book: The Tenth Book: The Eleventh Book: The Twelfth Book: The Thirteenth Book: The Fourteenth Book: The Fifteenth Book: The Sixteenth Book: The Seventeenth Book: The Eighteenth Book: Book One: Ganga Datta was born of Shantanu and Maharanee.
Ved Vyas, the narrator was born of Sathyavati and Parashar. Ganga Datta takes a vow of chastity, and one of the women Vyas sleeps with vows to take revenge against Datta. Book Two: Sir Richard laments the spread of radicalization in Hastinapur by the regent, Ganga Datta who is also referred as Gangaji. Despite this, the peasants in Motihari experience a victory because of his protest. Book Three: Menawhile, Dhritarashtra marries Gandhari.
Pandu joins Gangaji in his protest, while Gnadhari has a daughter named by Priya Duryodhani. Book Four: Dhritarashtra heads the Kaurava party, organized by Pandu.
Book Five: The Power of Silence, an epidemic strikes Calcuttta, and a women named Sarah Moore convinces the jute mill manager-her brother-to give his workers a bonus. When the workers refuse to give up that bonus they are locked out. Gangaji starts his first hunger strike in protest and Mill Owners Association caves at the direction of the British Raj.
Book Six: Forbidden Fruit, the chapter begins with Dhritarashtra and Pandu in disagreement. They both want independence for India, but Pandu wants to take a harder approach than Dhritarashtra and Gangaji do. Pandu leaves the Kaurava Party. Book Seven: He also discusses the effect of the formation of the Muslim Group, which is led by Gaga Shah, who eventually offers leadership of the group to Karna, son of Kunti and Hyperion Helios.
Indra Deva becomes a lawyer and member of the Kaurava Party. Book Eight: Priya tries to kill her cousin, Bhim. Meanwhile, Pandu wants to be president of the Kaurava Party, and Dhritarashtra is afraid Pandu will win the vote. Gangaji tells Dhritarashtra to step down so that an untouchable can run against Pandu.
This way, if Pandu wins, Dhritarashtra will not have been defeated. Book Nine: Pandu starts the Onward Organization, or Onward Organization. In this role, he joins forces with the Nazis and Japanese to fight the British in Burma. Pandu dies of a heart attack after he tries to have sex. Book Ten: Darkness at Dawn, Karna seeks power with the help of the Kaurava Party but the attempt fails.
Sir Richard wants the viceroy to go to war against Germany. This declaration of war, made without consulting any other elected governments, leads to a mass resignation by members of the Kaurava Party.
In the vacuum created by this event, he Muslim Group is able to take over the government in three provinces. After the war ends, the Kaurava Party regains some power, but not enough to unseat the Muslim Group and the British punish those who sided with the Nazis.
Book Eleven: This is supposed to take place on August 15, Dhritarastra and the Kauravas agree that India will be partitioned. Dhritarastra has an affair with Lady Drewpad, and after India gains her independence, Gangaji is assassinated.
Book Twelfth: They have a daughter together, who is given up for adoption. Her name is Draudpadi Mokrasi. Meanwhile, Karna becomes the government general of Karnistan. Book Thirteen: Passages through India, in this chapter Pandavas becoming more and more popular, and Dhritarashtra is concerned. Priya Duryodhani schemes to undermine and destroy the Pandavas. They go into hiding in Varanavata. Karna dies at the end of this book. The Rigged Veda, here Priya Duryodhani is still trying to kill the Pandavs, who travel around India to stand up for the undergone of the country.
Dhritarashtra annexes Comea, a Portuguese colony. Dhritarashtra dies of embarrassment. Book Fifteen: Karnistan attacks, so Shishu Pal launches a counterstrike, which is successful, but he dies after a ceasefire. Priya Duryodhani is appointed in his place after Ved Vyas convinces the working committee to do so.
Book Sixteen: The Bungle Book-or The Reign of Error, here a deputy prime minister is elected, but Priya Duryodhani refuses to work with him so he resigns. The banks are nationalized, taking away money from former princes.
She wins against Karnistan, but she becomes a more oppressive ruler. Book Seventeen: She assumes dictatorial powers and arrests her opponents. Book Eighteen: She gains power after another election following the fall of the government. The novel fascinates with allegorical aspects of merging the contemporary Indian history with the mythical realities. Myth is employed deliberately to be an interpretive strategy and narrative strategy which excites the reader joy of discovering the hidden meaning.
In spite of fusion myth and reality, the message is clear. The Great Indian Novel is a fictional narrative on the birth of independent India. The novel was narrated by Ved Vyas, who witness to history and a leading participant in it, makes it possible to provide first hand relation of events as they really happened and also impart an objectivity and immediacy to the narrator.
Tharoor uses the daringly original style with its persistent mock-serious tone and its humour, irony and sarcasm which seems to stand in aid of the bold experimentation Tharoor attempts. The novel has political personages and events as repetitions of the epic and an episode of The Mahabharata.
It provides the superficial treatment of the history in the work in the absence of an adequate historical vision. History is in fact an ensemble of the lived experience of a people; and a sense of the experience. The novel also presents the identity of the modem India to the West. The horrendous experience of the country during the darkest period in the history of free India helped revive the memory of the battle of Kurukshetra, giving birth to the reality can only be understood in relation to the myths and legends of Indian traditional history.
The narrator uses the narrative technique also stresses on the obscurity of interpretation. The style and expression of Tharoor serve him well in keeping the interest of the reader, by tickling his imagination. The story of Parasara and Matsyagandhi is rash interpreted as a down to earth union of a fisherwoman and a Brahmin and the description of ancient saints like Parasara as the twice-born travelling salesmen of salvation. The stinking body odour of Matsyagandhi the fisherwoman is euphemistically characterizes as olfactory inconvenience.
The supernatural contrivances of the sage are reduced in the narrative to a thick copse of trees and a mist around the island and the claim of Satyavathi of a magic cloud setting on the island is dismissed as a figment of imagination, a mere female hyperbole as Tharoor ingeniously puts it. The great Bhishma of the Mahabharata becomes the Ganga Datta of the story, Gangaji as he is to be described in the narrative.
The historical paralles are not too far to seek. The political Bhishma or Gangaji is no other than Mahatma Gandhi who in political astuteness, professional strategies, and the practices of austerity merits an unobtrusive comparison with the Bhishma Pitamaha of the Mahabharata.
Ved Vyas of the original becomes the oldest political-narrative of the novel. Bhishma who becomes the Ganga Datta or Gangaji of the story is the Mahatma. Karana becomes Jinnah. In the original story that is the Mahabharata, the great dynasty of kings being disinherited as a result of lack of progeny to sustain the monarchical line, that being the reason Ved Vyas had to be called upon ensure the required continuity, to see the approval of the British Government paralles the approval of Bhishma and others of the original narrative.
Salva the king of the original story is modernized into a Cambridge Blue. The anger of Amba on being rejected by all including her former lover Salva propels her into a vengeful figure aiming at no less than the head of Bhishma.
Ved Vyas says to his mother that he had to rush to the rescue of the childless Ambica and Ambalika. Tharoor use of Draupadi as a metaphor of democracy is yet another remarkable use of mythical characters by Tharoor.
Draupadi stands for secular democracy, the many religions and the religious freedom in India being represented by the many husbands she has accepted. Draupadi said that he prayed to Shiva, to Jehovah, to the virgin mother of his adoptive parents, to the Allah of the Muslims and to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Polyandry thus becomes a convenient symbol of secularism. Narrating the story in modern terms, Tharoor substitutes the Sun God of Indian mythology with his Greek namesake Hyperion or Helios as he calls him and a foreigner of immense presence and warmth. Ved Vyas the narrator addresses Ganapathi the scribe that he wants to tell, sing, and speak, all in connection with the weapon of disobedience, the civil disobedience or Satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi.
The greatest tribute to Mahatma in brief but pithy words while he was alive, he was impossible to ignore, once he had gone, he was impossible to imitate.
To enrich the prose descriptions of the novel, Tharoor intersperses the prose narrative with a few poems in between. These short lined rhymed verses are crisp and humorous. Tharoor describes that graceless contraption of quite spectacular ugliness. The eventual annexation of Hastinapur becomes symbolic of the onset of the imperialist yoke. The Jallianwallah Bagh massacre invokes the kind of response.
Tharoor comments are virulent and corrosive, coloured with brutal irony. Tharoor speaks of the British colonel responsible for the historical savagery, perhaps he acted in the way distorted by the simple logic of colonialism, under which the rules of humanity applied only to the rulers, for the rulers were people and the people were objects, yet the civilizing mission upon which Rudyard and the tribe were embarked made savages of all of us, and all of them Tharoor rightly accuses the British that they invented poverty by creating the Indian landless labour and by killing the Indian artisan.
Tharoor exhibits the savage sense of humour and blunts the edge of tall western claims, while seeming to be casual in his pronouncements, great discoveries, Ganapathi, often result of making the wrong mistake at the right time.
Ask Columbus. Comparing the average attitude of western women to their Indian counterparts, Tharoor comments the western woman misses a meal in the interest of her figure; her Indian sister dedicates her starvation to a cause. Tharoor characterizes going in fast as an act of affirmation rather than blackmail. The recounting of history, Tharoor opines the order of the artificially impose upon life to permit its lessons to be more clearly understood. Tharoor says that British have stolen everything they need for centuries successfully from India and yet, surprisingly they wanted to impose taxes of all kinds, on the already looted and overburdened Indians.
Employing a caustic figure of speech, Tharoor berates the British, they taxed property, and income and harvests, and they taxed our petrol, our patience, and even our passing to the other world. Tharoor realizes the efficacy of tactical modes as opposed to idealism fir only for ivory towers.
Ved Vyas tells Ganapathi the scribe that we were not led by a saint with his head in the clouds, but by a master tactician with his feet on the grounds. Tharoor added a sauce to the wit of his imagination, chooses to give a twist to well known aphorism like humanity cannot bear too much reality, by altering it with a tongue in cheek, and colonialism, as the poet said, cannot bear very much hilarity.
A serious deviation from the Mahabharata epic is the story of Ekalavya. Ekalavya of the novel refuses to pay Gurudakshina, the fees the teacher Drona demands from Ekalavya for his having listened to him secretly standing outside the room where Drona taught the Pandavas and the Kauravas. In an amiable anachronism, the Pandavas are credited with a cricket ball, which they lose to be retrived by their teacher Drona. Indian independence and the role of the Mahatma in it therefore occupy a major chunk of the fictional narrative.
Tharoor argues, in keeping with the tastes of the present day readers, the young readers of the day in particular, In the olden days our epic narrators thought nothing of leaving a legendary hero stranded in mid-conquest while digressing into sub- plots, with stories, fables and anecdotes within each.
But these, Ganapathi, are more demanding times. Leave Ganga to his devices and start telling fables about Devayani and Kacha, and your audience will walk in droves Commenting about the elections, Tharoor says there are no victors in such a battle, and ads, this election is not Kurukshetra; life is Kurukshetra and History of Kurukshetra. The struggle between dharma and adharma is a struggle the nation, and each of them in it.
That struggle, that battle took place before this election; it will continue after it. In The Great Indian Novel, the emergency is allegorical represented as the siege of Hastinapur, the kingdom fighting against the Kaurvas. Tharoor draws a possible allegorical between the myth and history by presenting Priya Duryodhani that was Indira Gandhi who conspires to get rid of Pandavas in every possible way.
When Vyas came to realizes that Duryodhani and her minors had been stripping the nation of the values and institutions which had been right to cherish. Hence it presented the emergency, interpreted as an attempt by Indira Gandhi to humiliate the citizens and take the Indian Democracy for granted but India has strong democratic roots and it cannot be replaced by dictatorship for long.
Democracy can never be suppressed. After a temporary hibernation, Indian Democracy rose once again like the phoenix from the ashes. The brutal sentence of a long exile of her five husbands may be analysed with an allegorical reference to the tarnishing of the independence of the major concepts of the democratic government.
Tharoor incorporating not only the factual history of the post-Independent times, but also during the independence, include some of his observations on the contemporary politics, by the means of satire, humour, bathos and at times farce. Tharoor uses the Mahabharata as a device and in some ways an interpretative tool, for structuring the narrative out of the confusing developments of modern Indian history. Tharoor resorts to allegory where conflict between meaning and representation is properly fore-grounded.
Tharoor tone of irony and his inclination towards satiric mode of thinking and presentation gives us an idea of his serious observation of Indian traditional values which were preached and practiced by the ancient sages. Tharoor protests the subjecting of the entire Indian value system to mockery at the hands of westernized Indian intellectuals in conference rooms. The appearance of the archetypal characters and events can be seen in the novel.
It might have been Tharoor as well as Ved Vyas who exposes the intricacies of the great epic with its modern relevance to the twentieth century. Here Draupadi Mokrasi stands for democracy. Tharoor admits that he saw the meaning of Independence come pulsating to life as unlettered peasants rose in the villages to pledge their votes for democracy.
Tharoor says that he saw the journalists younger than the constitution; relearn the meaning the freedom but discovering the world that was erased from their note books, and also Draupadi face glowed in the open, the flame of her radiance burnt more brightly than ever. The multiple events of the novel can essentially be viewed with a binary vision-realistic and imagery, modern and mythological, serious and ironical eventually reflecting the techniques of real depictions and dreams.
The plight of people of India lies in accepting their political leaders blindly and with complete faith. The prime minister ruled like a goddess and her own conceptions grades black and white: Tharoor has parodied some characters and the places in the novel.
India helped freedom fighters of Bangladesh and as a result Bangladesh got freedom from Pakistan. Jayaprakash Narayan, a former freedom fighter, leader of the Janta Party is represented as Jayaprakash Drona. He opposed the rule of Indira Gandhi. One important similarity between Drona and Jayaprakash Narayan is that both of them were experts in their fields.
Drona was expert in the art of archer while Jayaprakash Narayana was an expert in art of politics. He came out to defend and strengthen the institutions of democracy which were being ignored by Indira Gandhi. The narrator fictionals a character from The Mahahharata who more or less presents the picture of Jayaprakash Narayana in the novel: At last the people rose.
Or, as always in India, some of the people rose, led by an unlikely figure who had stepped from the page, so it almost seemed of the history books. Jayaprakash, Drona emerged from his retreat and called for a People's Uprising against Priya Duryodhani The narrator also points out towards the Jayaprakash movement in the novel which was led and supported by Drona. The movement was also supported by almost all the non-left political parties which had been trounced in They found a popular leader emerging in the movement.
These parties believed he would enable them to acquire credibility as an alternative to Congress. The narrator has given an insight into this movement that Drona's uprising was a peaceful one but it was not really an uprising but a mass movement.
It was, however, a movement that rapidly caught the imagination of the people and ignited that of the opposition. Drona preached not only against the whole monopoly of national evils, including which the Prime Minister had campaigned in the election. The narrator has also mentioned the internal emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi.
Censorship on the press was imposed, too, under the Rule of 48 of the Defence and Maintenance of Internal Security of India Act of The newspapers were not allowed to publish inter-alia reports which affected India's relations with foreign powers. The newly appointed Information and Broadcast minister, Vidya Charan Shukla, warned all foreign correspondents in New Delhi that they were subject to expulsion from the country if they failed to submit their dispatches and broadcast script for censorship.
Democracy was shattered during the period of Indira Gandhi, and political unrest in the countrynwould lead to total anarchy. The ruling parties now decided that Indira Gandhi should be taken to the court and face a law suit for her actions during her emergency regime.
Indira was accused of making umiecessary amendments in the constitution. The parties tried to restore those rights again. The narrator also describes the episode of Indira Gandhi being trialed by the court for making the changes in the basic form of the constitution.
The same was happening in Pakistan as well. Indira Gandhi was also facing the same charges though in a modest way. Indira had to face the legal trials. The narrator makes an ironic commentary on the judiciary of India and asserted that'the law could not do any harm to the people in high offices. Since everyone who had lived in India for the last three years with his eyes open knew she had subverted the constitution, it did not seem to be a charge that required much proof Yet the chosen means did not serve the choicest ends: Pakistan was once again looking for an opportunity to launch a fresh attack on India as Pakistan had seen the outcome of Indo-China war, The Kamistanis, too, saw the haze of transience around his eyes.
They began their preparations soon after he had unassumingly assumed office, and seized the first tactical opportunity to make their second grab for Manimir. In , the main issue of Indo-Pak war was Jammu and Kashmir. The main cause of this second war between India and Pakistan was the Rann of Kachchh which is a marshy place between the Sindh provincial border and the former Kathiwar states.
Now, it is under the possession of India. Pakistan claimed that the Ran was an arm of the sea and consequently the frontier should be drawn in its centre but India, accepting the old border line between Sindh and Kathiwar states, held that it had been the international frontier since Their dispute led to the war. Pal prayed from dusk till dawn, and then gave the order for counter-attack.
Our army had learned its lessons from the Chakra humiliation, and hits back so hard that our troops were just seven kilometers from Kamistanis most populous city. Laslut, when another cease-fire intervened. The narrator has also described the victory of the Janta Party and its celebration in an Indian way.
The celebration of the victory of the election is like a national festival in the country. Somebody shouted. The chant picked up the variety, and rhythm like Drona Zindabad! Yudhishtir, Zindabad! Janta Front, Zindabad! The novel projects out to be powerful weapon in the favour of both the nation and the individual.
Dharma is a spherical whole that can be understood from varied dimensions. Dharma as Tharoor conceded is multi-dimensional. One can examine this Dharma running through our mythological and history and although it is entirely dissolved in our body politic. Tharoor seems to portray its crystallized political dimension in the depiction of the emergency, skillfully representing the blend of mythic space surpassing the decades of modern history.
Tharoor accomplishes the portrayal of the struggle during the emergency through the canvas of Mahabharata. It aptly reshapes the nation spaces. Narrating history in a postmodern ambience itself proved to be a herculean task ultimately overcome by Tharoor. It can be distinctly noted that while attempting to interpret the complicated events of the tale of the twentieth century Indian politics, obviously requires a rounded conception for its complete and comprehensive understanding.
It contains the history of almost a century. The political figures of national and international importance make this epic a worth reading. The epic cannot be dissociated from the ancient past of India. It has rich elements of mythology. The novel also states the political development of postcolonial India. The novel is also a political satire as it satirizes the key political figures and institutions.
Gandhi is truly the hero of this epic.
Gandhi the father of the nation without whom this epic would have been incomplete. The novel is a wonderful blend of history, myth and fantasy.
Myth is a system of hereditary stories of ancient origin which were once believed to be true by a particular cultural group and which served to explain in terms of the intensions and actions of deities and other supernatural beings, why the world is as it is and things happen as they do, to provide a rationale for social customs and observances and to establish the sanctions for the rules by which people conduct their lives.
An abiding characteristic of the Indian mind has been discovered connections between myth and reality. Characters from the Ramayana and Mahabharatha are perennial contemporaries for Indians who acknowledge the continuing influence of the two national epics on their private and public lives.
The Great Indian Novel was like Mahabharatha, a revised, re-written, re-read text. Shashi Tharoor has taken the Mahabharata as a blueprint and filled it with a contemporary cast for his witty send-up of pre-and post-independence India.
He has reconstructed the major strands of modern Indian history in the form of an epic spoof. Like the epic of Vyasa, the novel is divided into eighteen books and its narrative is presented in a multi coloured style and in a digressive manner.
In other words, the text is born out of a written transcription of an oral narrative. Tharoor, while expressing his gratitude towards this master narrative, says that the Mahabharta has come to stand for so much in the popular consciousness of Indianess: The epic truly encompasses the country. Tharoor has no hesitation in seeking parallels from the great Indian epic.
Acknowledgeing the great indebtness to the Mahabharata, the author says: Many of the characters, incidents, and issues in the novel are based on the people and events described in the great epic the Mahabharata. Tharoor has transformed the ancient myth of the Mahabharata by using it to recreate history and politics of modern Indian.
The Mahabharata has been a source of imagination to all artistic genres down the ages. It cannot be considered as just as a text but it is a tradition. The complex and many storied plot of this enormous epic, largely in oral tradition have been handed down generation to generation.