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Mirat-ul-Uroos Urdu: The story contrasts the lives of two Muslim sisters from Delhi , Akbari and Asghari. The first part of the book describes the life of Akbari, who is raised in privilege. She is depicted as lazy and poorly educated. When she moves to her husband's house after her marriage, she has a very difficult time and brings all manner of unhappiness upon herself by her poor judgment and behavior.
If there were a sister named Middle too, the fairy-tale likeness would be complete. The Bride's Mirror Mirat ul-Arus may or may not have been the first Urdu novel, but it was certainly the first Urdu best-seller. Released in , within twenty years it had appeared in editions totalling over , copies; it had also, its publisher claimed, been translated into Bengali, Braj, Kashmiri, Punjabi, and Gujarati.
In an English translation was published in London by G. Ward; it is this translation that is reproduced in the present volume. Ward was such a careful student of the work that he had already, four years earlier, laboriously produced and published an entire roman-script version of the text, with partial annotation and a complete cumulative glossary. Nazir Ahmad came from a family with a distinguished religious ancestry.
In , the boy had the opportunity to enroll at Delhi College, and studied there till ; he chose its Urdu section, he later said, because his father had told him 'he would rather see me die than learn English'.
Though he passed it off as the usual parentally-arranged marriage, many years later he urged his son in a letter to plan his own marriage, as he himself had done. In he joined the British colonial administration, and his career prospered: On the advice of a friend, he took six months' leave and spent the time acquiring a working knowledge of English. In he began translating the Income Tax Law into English, and followed it with the Indian Penal Code, a project completed in In he was rewarded with the post of Deputy Collector in the Revenue Service hence his conventional title of 'Deputy' Nazir Ahmad , and was posted in various cities.
Around or he started to write school textbooks in Urdu. Then in , the government of the Northwest Frontier Provinces began to offer prizes for books judged suitable for educational use: Only one further stipulation was made: The work was so esteemed that its author received not only the maximum prize of Rs.
This account, however, like some other famous anecdotes, seems to be a product of his pleasure in 'telling tales' and 'adding drama to the events of his life'. He continued to write and translate educational and practical works, and in he once again won the grand prize of Rs.
This work so pleased Matthew Kempson, the Director of Public Instruction, that he personally translated it into English. He remained there until , when court politics caused him to resign and return to Delhi, where he lived for the rest of his life.
During his years in Hyderabad, though he wrote almost nothing, he is said to have learned Telugu and memorized all of the Quran. Back in Delhi, he composed four more tales: At this point he ceased to write fiction, and began to participate in Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan's various political activities; he developed into a popular, effective, humorous public speaker.
Eventually he turned his attention toward religious reform, and composed a number of thoughtful, candid, liberal-minded essays. He died of a stroke in But his influence lived on, and not just through his writings: The Bride's Mirror was for teaching household arts, The Daughters of the Bier for teaching useful facts, and The Repentance of Nasuh for teaching piety.
There is certainly, as C. Naim notes, 'some internal evidence to suggest that the series was planned'--or at least, that a series was planned, though it may have evolved in the course of its writing.
Nevertheless, the quality and reputation of the three tales differ markedly.
The second tale is much the weakest--it consists largely of an account of the school run by Asghari--while the first and third are the author's most famous works, with most critics preferring the third. The Bride's Mirror , the one that started it all, became such a popular favorite that in the days of its greatest fame it was, like a fairy tale, 'simply known as the story of Akbari and Asghari'.
The influential religious scholar Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi took a dim view of the work. His own famous didactic work Bihishti Zevar Heavenly Jewels was commonly given to brides, since it contained encyclopedic advice for every part of their domestic and religious lives. And in his list of harmful books that should not be read, the Maulana included both The Bride's Mirror and The Daughters of the Bier , along with two later tales by Nazir Ahmad.
Perhaps realizing how odd this would seem to his readers, he added a note of explanation: The Bride's Mirror is not only 'the most popularly beloved of the books Thanawi condemns', but also 'a story that seems in many ways a fictional account of the girl the Bihishti Zewar was meant to produce'. Metcalf emphasizes Asghari's exemplary combination of moral qualities and practical abilities: It is the story of two sisters, the elder a mean-tempered, uneducated failure and the younger, Asghari, a literate, competent, and pious source of blessing to everyone she encounters.
Asghari brings order to household accounts and to people's lives--and is able to correspond with her wise father, who is posted away from home. Patient and sober, she controls her self and her environment.
Naim speculates on some possible reasons for the Maulana's dislike of the tales: Nazir Ahmad's 'equating of Islam with other religions', his 'praise of the Christian English, at the cost of Muslim Indians', his mockery of certain types of Muslim religious figures, and 'his portrayal of highly capable and dynamic women, who tower over the men around them'. Such a book describes and illustrates good and bad possibilities, providing many moral maxims along the way, so that the prince can see himself as reflecting the virtues and not the vices possible to his office.
Just to make sure she takes the point, the author introduces his tale with a long exhortation addressed to the girls who will be reading his book. He points out to them that women are 'preserved from the toil of earning a livelihood, or making money', but that 'it is the women who do the entire work of housekeeping'. Thus 'the world is like a cart which cannot move without two wheels--man on one side, and woman on the other' . Women have faculties like those of men, and can become famous like men.
It may be true that 'too much learning is unnecessary for a woman', but still--'how many women are there who acquire even so much as is absolutely necessary? Looking at 'the common practice of the whole country', we see ' no value set upon women' italics Ward's. Yet, 'oh women of India'--and the Urdu has only 'oh women'--you should realize that the blame lies with you: If you acquire more capacity, it will be recognized.
Yet living in purdah, how can you acquire it? For this you desperately need literacy.
For better or worse, the practice is solidly entrenched: Literate, knowledgeable women can educate their children at home, care for them properly, and manage large households more successfully. Everything points to the need for girls to read, to learn! He concludes his long introduction enticingly: In fact, Nazir Ahmad divides his tale into two sections.
The initial part, Akbari's story, is marked only by the traditional romance-like opening title Aghaz-e qissah The Beginning of the Story , and indeed the author claims in his introduction to have composed Akbari's story first.
But Akbari's story constitutes less than a fifth of the whole narrative. The second section, over four-fifths of the whole, is called Asghari Khanam ka bayan An Account of the Lady Asghari ; this is the part that the author claims he later added at the insistence of his daughters . In his translation G. Ward breaks up the text into thirty-one short chapters, of which the first six tell Akbari's story.
Akbari, newly married, behaves in every unsuitable way: She sews so sloppily that her aunt not only pinches her, but even runs a needle into her hand by way of punishment. She goes out without her husband's permission, tells her mother false stories of ill-treatment, and spitefully demands an establishment of her own, independent of the joint family home in which she and her husband have been living.
When she does get her own separate household, she is quite unable to run it. She cannot cook, so she feeds herself and her undesirable girlfriends on expensive takeout food from the bazaar. Her girlfriends steal from her, a female con artist and her allies fleece her and run off with her jewels, her unaired clothes are gnawed by ants and rats, and so on.
Why is Akbari such a disaster? We aren't left in any doubt at all. Akbari is awful, her own mother acknowledges, because she was 'her grandmother's spoilt pet', and her childish disobedience and destructive fits of temper went unchecked .
The author endorses this verdict: The story is told by a reliable first-person narrator, but his voice is impossible to distinguish from that of the author. Nazir Ahmad helpfully makes the comparison between the sisters' lives as explicit as possible.
Although Akbari was sixteen when she was married, he tells us, Asghari was married at the tender age of thirteen--to the less capable, less knowledgeable younger brother of Akbari's husband.
Moreover, Asghari had a child in the second year of her married life though we are later given to understand that this child died soon after birth ; and her husband's career obliged her to spend much time away from home. In short, he points out, her situation was worse than Akbari's in every way except one: For although her mother is 'a very hot-tempered woman', Asghari herself is 'intelligent, sensible, and kindly dispositioned'. She is a paragon: Her father, Durandesh 'Far-seeing' Khan, sends to her as a wedding present a very long and particularly patriarchal letter of advice about how to behave in her marital home: Asghari makes it her practice 'to read it and meditate upon its contents regularly every day' .
In fact, it appears that Asghari has been educated chiefly by her father . Although she finds her life as a new daughter-in-law difficult, Asghari behaves commendably. She cultivates her young sister-in-law, Mahmudah, and gradually becomes a valued member of the household. But she still runs into trouble. She falls foul of Mama Azmat, a venerable female servant who has been presiding over the household for decades, controlling all purchases, all loans and debts, all transactions involving the women's jewels--and, in the process, cheating and stealing to her heart's content.
When Asghari catches her out, Mama Azmat conspires to get Asghari into trouble with her in-laws. To make herself indispensable, she exploits the illiteracy and credulousness of Asghari's mother-in-law to persuade her that a harmless sign on the wall is a notice of a lawsuit over the family's chronic indebtedness. But Asghari has written to her brother, asking him to arrange for her father-in-law to return briefly to Delhi from his post in Lahore.
In the meantime, she works quietly to reduce the family's expenses. When her father-in-law arrives, he and she together ensure that Mama Azmat's fraud is exposed and the debts are paid.
Asghari's father-in-law addresses her with real respect: The whole second half of the story Chapters XVII-XXXI is an account of how cleverly Asghari manages to restore and increase the family's wealth, while also greatly improving their social connections. She organizes all domestic affairs 'as if the house were a machine, with all its works in good order' , and persuades her husband to stop gambling and start working seriously to learn Arabic and accounting.
Her reputation is such that Husnara, a spoiled young girl from a distantly related aristocratic family of the neighborhood, is sent to her for training. Before long Asghari is running a small girls' school in her home: We learn a lot about her teaching methods including a recipe for zardah , and about the evils of other schools they are boring, cruel, and exploitative. Jinnah road. Bashir Momin Urdu: Plot Rudaba is an innocent girl who is engaged to her father's best friend's son Buland Bakhtiar.
One day Rudaba's father and future father-in-law are killed due to robbery shooting. Rudaba reluctantly moves in with Adil upon his insistence.
Adil workes as a front man for his own brother in-law Bashar Momin,. Samina Ahmad is a Pakistani television actress, stage performer, television producer and television director.
She is a veteran TV actress with almost 50 years of work experience. Her switch to the comic roles proved to be highly rewarding for her, and she quickly became a top media person in Pakistan.
When asked in an interview about what she values most in life? Her prompt reply was, "Humanity". Samina Ahmad was just an 18 year old college student in Lahore, Pakistan, when she first started working for Pakistan Television Corporation. During her long career, she. Burka Avenger is a Pakistani animated television series created, directed and produced by Haroon.
Four seasons, containing a total of 52 episodes were directed and produced by Haroon at Unicorn Black, have been launched to great success in Pakistan. Urdu literature Urdu: While it tends to be dominated by poetry, especially the verse forms of the ghazal and nazm, it has expanded into other styles of writing, including that of the short story, or afsana.
Urdu literature is mostly popular in Pakistan, where Urdu is the national language and India, where it is an official language. It is also widely understood in Afghanistan. Origin Urdu developed in the Delhi region. Urdu literature originated some time around the 14th century in present-day North India among the sophisticated gentry of the courts.
The continuing traditions of Islam and patronisations of foreign culture centuries earlier by Muslim rulers, usually of Turkic or Afghan descent, marked their influence on the Urdu language given that both cultural heritages were strongly present thro. Ahsan Ali Taj is a Pakistani music composer, songwriter and singer. He started his music career in as a singer and music composer. Deputy Nazir Ahmad Ward; Frances W.
Asghari and Akbari two sisters married to brothers in Delhi, circa In this gripping tale, one sister has every advantage — and sees her life collapse around her.
The other faces great difficulties — but eventually comes to dominate her world Thomas Welbourne Clark, University of London.
CS1 maint: Multiple names: Akbari's first grand-daughter Aiza Aamina Sheikh is very arrogant, spendthrift and has been raised with a lot of love, while her second g Folders related to Mirat-ul-Uroos TV series: Mirat-ul-Uroos topic Mirat-ul-Uroos Urdu: S Folders related to Mirat-ul-Uroos: He enter Folders related to Mikaal Zulfiqar: British film actors of Pakistani descent Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Pakistani male television actors Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Pakistani people of English descent Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Pakistani television series Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Urdu-language television programs Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Pakistani television series endings Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Pritchett Folders related to Nazir Ahmad Dehlvi: Pakistani actresses Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of Pakistani television series topic This is a list of Pakistani dramas. Abdullah Kadwani topic Abdullah Kadwani Urdu: Pakistani dramas topic Pakistani dramas Urdu: This makes them shorter than soap operas, but Folders related to Pakistani dramas: Entertainment in India Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Urdu-language television programs Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Punjabi-language television programming Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Sarah Khan topic Sarah Khan Urdu: Ahsan Khan topic Ahsan Khan is a Pakistani film and television actor, producer, host and performer. Pakistani television hosts Revolvy Brain revolvybrain English people of Pakistani descent Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Pakistani male television actors Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Fawad Khan topic Fawad Khan born 29 November is a Pakistani actor, producer, screenwriter, model and singer. It is taught what type of dress should be prepared according to type of party and meal is prepared.
His novels in Urdu language have also been www. His complete Urdu literature is significant for students of Home Economics in Pakistan. As these novels give information regarding skills applied at homes in eastern culture. And that these novels, irrespective of boundaries should be part of Home Economics education. Ahmed, D. Binnat un Naash. Sangi Meel Publication.
Jawaid, D. Repitions in Urdu Novel. Multan, Punjab, Pakistan: Department of Urdu, Bahauddin Zakaria Uniersity. Kabira, F. Urdu Novel mein Aurat Ka tasawar.
New Delhi: Maktab i JAmia. Nagi, A. Deputy Nazir Ahmed ki Novel Nigari. Prof shuja Ahmed, z. Maktab i asloob. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Majlis Taiqi adab. Related Papers. By Shenila Khoja-Moolji. Redefining Muslim Women: Women of 'Ill Repute': Ethics and Urdu Literature in Colonial India. By Sarah Waheed. By Tariq Rahman. From Hindi To Urdu a social and political History. By Dr. Tariq Rahman. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer.
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