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Stacy E. Walker, PhD, ATC, provided conception and design; acquisition and analysis and interpretation of the data; and drafting, critical revision, and final approval of the article. To introduce the process of journal writing to promote reflection and discuss the techniques and strategies to implement journal writing in an athletic training education curriculum. Journal writing can facilitate reflection and allow students to express feelings regarding their educational experiences. The format of this writing can vary depending on the students' needs and the instructor's goals.
Although students may experience cognitive dissonance when engaging in a written dialogue about a challenging experience they had, the discourse can facilitate different ways of thinking 27 and empower students to handle themselves differently after reflection in the future. Instead students, after reflection, have thought about their actions and how they would handle themselves or the situation differently in the future, which is reflection-for-action.
The journal writing process, however, should be well planned and have explicit student expectations. Before assigning journal writing, the instructor must convey to the students all expectations with regard to completing and grading the journals.
These questions will provide focus to enable the student to concentrate on the writing and not feel insecure about how the instructor will grade the journal. As stated by Kobert, 29 every effort should be made to ensure that the journal writing is seen as nonthreatening and satisfying.
Identifying expectations before starting the first journal will prevent some confusion. It is also imperative for the instructor to consider many facets of the journaling process. The following section discusses factors to consider when planning for the use of journals, including setting student expectations, identifying appropriate topics, journal utilization strategies, and grading systems. Depending on the method of use daily, weekly writing and the journal's purpose to enhance critical thinking, promote reflection, etc , the way in which journal writing is used can take many different forms.
Table 2 presents general topics followed by subtopics for possible student assignments in the classroom or clinical education setting. These topics can vary depending on the level of student, classroom content, location and type of clinical experience, and deficiencies or needs of the student. Topics may be decided solely by the instructor or through more egalitarian methods with the students' input. Burnard 30 stated that one democratic method of determining topics for journal writing is to discuss this with the class.
Preassigned or spontaneous topics could also be used. The advantage of preassigned topics is that the student is aware of the topic and can be thinking about it before writing. On the other hand, some students may have certain spontaneous experiences during their clinical education about which they wish to write.
It is important for instructors to experiment with students and classes to determine which methods encourage reflection in students. Some classes as a whole may elect to use journal writing with the spontaneous method.
Spontaneous topics and experiences can include incidents that interest or concern students during their clinical placements. Unfortunately, due to uncontrollable factors, some students may find this method less challenging than preassigned topics and want to change the method of their journal writing.
Journal writing should be viewed as experimental and as a work in progress or a process by which students learn to reflect and, we hope, move from reflection-in-action to reflection-for-action. Simply, the goal is for students to evaluate their actions and reflect on how they could handle the situation differently in the future. Instructors should be ready to adapt the journal writing experience to enhance assignment goals, whether they are reflection, learning, etc.
Journal writing can be time consuming for the student, so one way to show that this writing is valued is to allot some classroom time for the students to write.
Hahnemann 20 reported using journal writing for 10 to 15 minutes of each class. Students were asked to write about what they expected to learn from class that day, as well as what had been learned from previous classes. Although allocating 10 to 15 minutes of class time for this purpose may not be feasible in a minute class period, this method could be adapted to 2 to 3 minutes every class period or whatever fits the instructor's schedule.
Brown and Sorrell 22 assigned students to write in their journals during class about difficult concepts or summarize a discussion or argue for or against a treatment. Physical therapy students were assigned to write about at least one learning event that occurred in their clinical placement.
Pinkstaff 26 asked nursing students enrolled in a public health class to write in their journals on individual topics related to class each week. Qualitative analysis revealed that the students not only improved in the creativity of their writing but the quality of their essay writing skills. When completing some journal assignments, students should be allowed to write using a freeform style.
If the focus of the journal is to reflect, then the journal should be a forum where students can write and not worry about punctuation, grammar, and spelling. As stated by Hahnemann, 20 journals are a means by which students should be allowed to experiment and test their wings. Focusing too much attention on grammar and punctuation may lead a student to misinterpret the purpose of the journal writing activity. Instead, the attention should be on the content of what is written and not how it is written.
Additional information on grading and feedback is discussed later. Burnard 30 felt that no guidelines should be given regarding the amount that is written under each heading or journal topic, because it was felt this would be overstructuring; however, students were encouraged to provide regular journal entries for each given topic.
Instead of a student's writing about a given topic one time over the course of a week, the student could be encouraged to write after each clinical experience or several times during that week. Brown and Sorrell 22 felt that the maximum length for assignments, such as summaries or critiques, should be 1 to 2 pages. Each instructor must decide what is appropriate for his or her purpose, and students must realize that content is more important than word count.
Instructors should also realize that motivation is a factor in journal writing. Paterson 31 pointed out that students are not always interested in all aspects of their clinical experiences, so instructors should not expect all journals to be of the same quality.
Some weeks, the student might only meet the basic requirements, whereas in other weeks, the student may write profusely. Different clinical experiences provide more education and invoke more passion than others. The instructor has to decide, based on the goals and objectives of the assignment as well as the clinical experience during a given time frame, the quality and length of journal writing. Students should also be given instructions as to how and when to turn in and pick up their journal entries.
Specific guidelines should be in place that will enable the student to properly submit and collect the journal entries. For example, one guideline may be to have the students collect their journals every Monday by Another would be to have them submitted during one class period and, after grading, handed back to the students during the next class period.
Lastly, other questions must be considered, such as where and how to submit the journal entries eg, mail box versus e-mail. Jackson 32 and Pinkstaff 26 stated that the single most important factor in the successful use of journaling is allowing the journal to be a safe space for free expression.
How can a student be graded for writing about feelings and reactions to specific issues and topics? How do we know he or she is really trying to reflect? Although they should be graded for their thoughts and feelings, it is important the students be informed 22 as to how the journals will fit into their grades. What percentage of their grade will be affected by their journal writing? How will they be graded?
Brown and Sorrell 22 suggested a method of grading by which if the student achieves all the goals for the journal, then he or she earns an A or passes that portion of the class the journal fulfills. Hahnemann 20 stated this was done because they felt it would motivate the students to write thoroughly and with meaning.
However the instructor chooses to integrate journal writing into a course, unless the journals have an effect on the grades, students will put very little effort into their writing. These journals can be a commitment for the student as well as the instructor, but they can potentially provide valuable insight and reflection.
The strength of journal entries is related to the students' motivation to engage and participate in their own learning processes. Wong et al 11 found that willingness, commitment, and open mindedness were attributes that were conducive to reflective learning. Determining the level of reflectivity is beyond the scope of this manuscript.
However, Atkins and Murphy 33 outlined 3 stages of the reflective process that can be used when grading. Stage 1 is triggered by awareness of uncomfortable feelings. The student realizes that knowledge being applied in this situation is not sufficient in and of itself to explain the situation.
For example, a student is using ultrasound treatments for tendinitis, but the treatment is producing no therapeutic effect. The student is unsure as to why this is happening and expresses frustration.
The second stage is characterized by a critical analysis of the situation. This involves feelings and knowledge, so that new knowledge is applied. Four terms were used to describe this critical thought process: The development of a new perspective on the situation is stage 3. The outcome here through learning is reflection.
These 3 stages can be a guide when grading a student's written journal entry to determine the level of reflectivity of the student. Educators interested in researching other tools with which to evaluate or grade journals are encouraged to consult the following papers and other works.
After writing their first journal entry, students should receive feedback before writing the next entry. Instead, the attempt to write on the student's part is more important than the success of the attempt. The thought of not providing numerous comments is echoed by Holmes, 23 who stated that when the focus of feedback is detailed, the students lose their sense of purpose and meaning in the writing.
Students will shift their focus from constructing a sense of what they are trying to say into worrying about grammar and sentence structure. Table 3 provides some sample follow-up questions that can be used to challenge and encourage students to think and reflect. In addition, as stated by Paterson, 31 a balance must be maintained between giving too many comments and nudging the student into new ways of thinking.
Correcting misinformation written by the student is encouraged, but no criticism or judgment should be made of the student's feelings. Annotations might pertain to future questions and comments to expand on in the next journal entry, but the instructor needs to try to avoid excessive grammar and spelling corrections. Feedback can be given in various ways. Brown and Sorrell 22 reported using both oral and written feedback.
Conferences, also known as debriefing sessions, either individual or group, can be set up to discuss the clinical journal's relationship to reflection, critical thinking, etc. The student and instructor sit down together to discuss the journal along with feedback goals for upcoming writings. Another way to conserve faculty time is to only grade at random a percentage of the journals that are written after a few weeks of feedback has been given. All of these types of feedback have strong points and limitations.
It is up to the instructor to decide what is appropriate and to modify as needed. Last, if a student inquires as to why or how the journal was graded, it is important for the instructor to be able to explain all comments and methods of grading. These grading points are not only justification but can help guide the student to further reflection. As stated by Riley-Doucet and Wilson, 8 one of the limitations of this type of assignment is the student who procrastinates and doesn't take responsibility for coursework.
When a student exhibits this type of behavior, it should be recognized by the instructor and discussed with the student. The student should be given the benefit of the doubt as to the procrastination, and the instructor can approach the student from the perspective that the student is lacking knowledge about reflection and journal writing.
Riley-Doucet and Wilson 8 recommended pairing this student with a peer who is comfortable with the journal writing. If this is not possible, another recommendation is to establish small short-term goals for upcoming journal writings, such as considering specific questions when writing the journal.
These short-term goals and guiding questions can assist the student in the reflective process. Journal writing is a process, and students may not put much effort into their writing in the beginning.
For some students, it will be easy to express their feelings and frustrations. Other students may struggle. Instructors should take into account individual personalities when providing feedback. In addition, the students need to be reminded that the journal writing is a process that takes time. It may take weeks or longer for a student to feel comfortable and trust the instructor. Feedback is a vital aspect in nurturing reflection over time, as the journal writing progresses over weeks and possibly years.
As stated by Kobert, 30 one drawback to journal writing is what makes it so valuable. Students may be reluctant or unable to explore and share intimacies of their own lived experiences with others. They may be more concerned with writing what they think the instructor wants to hear than writing about what is true to them.
Writing about issues and feelings puts the student in a very vulnerable position. To promote reflection, he or she must express weakness and insecurity to grow. Students must feel comfortable exposing this vulnerability. Holmes 23 noted the significant responsibility of both the student and instructor to accept differing views while searching for understanding and meaning.
Part of encouraging this truthful writing is not only through the previously mentioned feedback procedures but also by maintaining confidentiality to encourage truthfulness. However, if the instructor is new to the students, they will need evidence that the instructor will remain true to his or her word before disclosing too much in a journal entry.
Such trust takes time to develop, but if journal writing is seen as a work in progress, this is all part of the journey.
Additional research needs to be conducted investigating journal writing. Specific research questions include the following:. Does the type of feedback given to the student affect what is written in journal writing? What variables affect the trust level between the instructor and student to enhance truthful writing? The purpose of this article was to provide an introduction to the process of journal writing to promote reflection.
Our students, on a daily basis, encounter experiences that can teach them to reflect during their future practice of athletic training, and we owe it to our students to facilitate their reflection. Course preparation is short in relation to career practice; therefore, as educators, we hope to instill reflective qualities that mature and grow. Many methods of assigning and grading journal writing were presented in this article.
As with any teaching method, there is no right or wrong way to approach journal writing. As the students grow in self-confidence and gain trust in the instructor, they begin to reflect and write about their real concerns.
This leads to obtaining valuable feedback to empower our future certified athletic trainers to overcome those real-life concerns. Reflection is the goal, as everyone is rewarded—the student, the patient, the coach, and the instructor. Reflection enables the student to do a better job as a certified athletic trainer. Isn't our real goal to enable all of our students to give thought to their actions and perform with the utmost skill, knowledge, and confidence that they have done their jobs in the best possible manner?
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Athl Train v. J Athl Train. Stacy E Walker. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Contributed by Stacy E. Address correspondence to Stacy E. Address e-mail to ude. Abstract Objective: Dialogue Between Instructor and Student As stated previously, journal writing provides a one-on-one dialogue between the instructor and student.
Table 1 Expectations of Instructor. Open in a separate window. Journal Utilization Techniques Depending on the method of use daily, weekly writing and the journal's purpose to enhance critical thinking, promote reflection, etc , the way in which journal writing is used can take many different forms.
Table 2 Potential Journal Topics. Journal Content and Format Burnard 30 felt that no guidelines should be given regarding the amount that is written under each heading or journal topic, because it was felt this would be overstructuring; however, students were encouraged to provide regular journal entries for each given topic. Since the gap between the glasses increases radially from the center, the interference fringes form concentric rings. For glass surfaces that are not spherical, the fringes will not be rings but will have other shapes.
For illumination from above, with a dark center, the radius of the N th bright ring is given by. The above formula is also applicable for dark rings for the ring pattern obtained by transmitted light.
Consider light incident on the flat plane of the convex lens that is situated on the optically flat glass surface below. The light passes through the glass lens until it comes to the glass-air boundary, where the transmitted light goes from a higher refractive index n value to a lower n value.
The transmitted light passes through this boundary with no phase change. The light that is transmitted into the air travels a distance, t , before it is reflected at the flat surface below; reflection at the air-glass boundary causes a half-cycle phase shift because the air has a lower refractive index than the glass.
The reflected light at the lower surface returns a distance of again t and passes back into the lens. The two reflected rays will interfere according to the total phase change caused by the extra path length 2t and by the half-cycle phase change induced in reflection at the lower surface.
When the distance 2t is less than a wavelength, the waves interfere destructively, hence the central region of the pattern is dark. A similar analysis for illumination of the device from below instead of from above shows that in that case the central portion of the pattern is bright, not dark.
Compare the given example pictures to see this difference. Given the radial distance of a bright ring, r , and a radius of curvature of the lens, R , the air gap between the glass surfaces, t , is given to a good approximation by.
The phenomenon of Newton's rings is explained on the same basis as thin-film interference , including effects such as "rainbows" seen in thin films of oil on water or in soap bubbles. The difference is that here the "thin film" is a thin layer of air.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Thin-film interference. Sir Isaac Newton. Retrieved from " https: