Gandhiji Biography in Tamil &English - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Gandhiji Biography in Tamil &English. generations, from my grandfather, they have been Prime Ministers in several Kathiawad States. Uttamchand Gandhi, alias Ota Gandhi, my grandfather, must. Mahatma Gandhi's autobiography, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiment with Truth. Read online, download PDF version or read abridged version.
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The Gandhi Heritage Portal is a complete repository of authentic information about Mahatma Gandhi with some rare photographs and writings. Gandhi Autobiography or The Story of Experiments with Truth PDF, सत्याचे Abridged Gandhi Autobiography: Download Complete Ebook free PDF. Copies It is not my purpose to attempt a real autobiography or story of my life. Gandhiji's Autobiography* and his Satyagraha in South Africa+, as.
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Genealogy of the Mahatma. An album of prayers Buy. Bill Board Campaign. Audio CD. Contact Us. Get in touch with the Mahatma Gandhi Foundation. Click here for our postal address. T his is the Autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi.
This book is currently available in ". You can use the ". Please click on the links above to download the entire book. Satyache Prayog athva Atmakatha "pdf Format". He launched his last fast-unto-death in Delhi, asking that all communal violence be ended once and for all, and that the payment of million rupees be made to Pakistan. Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase their anger against India, and violence would spread across the borders.
He further feared that Hindus and Muslims would renew their enmity and that this would precipitate open civil war. After emotional debates with his life-long colleagues, Gandhi refused to budge, and the Government rescinded its policy and made the payment to Pakistan. Hindu, Muslim and Sikh community leaders, including the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Mahasabha assured him that they would renounce violence and call for peace.
Gandhi thus broke his fast by sipping orange juice. Assassination See also: Assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The assassin, Nathuram Godse, was a Hindu radical with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later tried and convicted; they were executed on 15 November These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been disputed.
Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation through radio:. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country.
Gandhi's ashes were poured into urns which were sent across India for memorial services. Most were immersed at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February but some were secretly taken away. In , Tushar Gandhi immersed the contents of one urn, found in a bank vault and reclaimed through the courts, at the Sangam at Allahabad. On 30 January the contents of another urn were immersed at Girgaum Chowpatty by the family after a Dubai-based businessman had sent it to a Mumbai museum.
The family is aware that these enshrined ashes could be misused for political purposes but does not want to have them removed because it would entail breaking the shrines. Gandhi's principles See also: Gandhi dedicated his life to the wider purpose of discovering truth, or Satya. He tried to achieve this by learning from his own mistakes and conducting experiments on himself. Gandhi stated that the most important battle to fight was overcoming his own demons, fears, and insecurities.
Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said "God is Truth". He would later change this statement to "Truth is God". Thus, Satya Truth in Gandhi's philosophy is "God". Although Mahatama Gandhi was in no way the originator of the principle of non- violence, he was the first to apply it in the political field on a huge scale. The concept of nonviolence ahimsa and nonresistance has a long history in Indian religious thought and has had many revivals in Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian contexts.
Gandhi explains his philosophy and way of life in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth. He was quoted as saying:. There have been tyrants and murderers and for a time they seem invincible, but in the end, they always fall — think of it, always. In applying these principles, Gandhi did not balk from taking them to their most logical extremes in envisioning a world where even government, police and armies were nonviolent.
The quotations below are from the book "For Pacifists.
The science of war leads one to dictatorship, pure and simple. The science of non-violence alone can lead one to pure democracy Power based on love is thousand times more effective and permanent than power derived from fear of punishment It is a blasphemy to say non-violence can be practiced only by individuals and never by nations which are composed of individuals A society organized and run on the basis of complete non-violence would be the purest anarchy.
I have conceded that even in a non-violent state a police force may be necessary Police ranks will be composed of believers in non-violence. The people will instinctively render them every help and through mutual cooperation they will easily deal with the ever decreasing disturbances Violent quarrels between labor and capital and strikes will be few and far between in a non-violent state because the influence of the non-violent majority will be great as to respect the principle elements in society.
Similarly, there will be no room for communal disturbances A non-violent army acts unlike armed men, as well in times of peace as in times of disturbances. Theirs will be the duty of bringing warring communities together, carrying peace propaganda, engaging in activities that would bring and keep them in touch with every single person in their parish or division.
Such an army should be ready to cope with any emergency, and in order to still the frenzy of mobs should risk their lives in numbers sufficient for that purpose.
Satyagraha truth-force brigades can be organized in every village and every block of buildings in the cities. To yield possession, but non-cooperate with the aggressor The second way would be non-violent resistance by the people who have been trained in the non-violent way The unexpected spectacle of endless rows upon rows of men and women simply dying rather than surrender to the will of an aggressor must ultimately melt him and his soldiery A nation or group which has made non-violence its final policy cannot be subjected to slavery even by the atom bomb The level of non-violence in that nation, if that even happily comes to pass, will naturally have risen so high as to command universal respect.
In accordance with these views, in , when invasion of the British Isles by Nazi Germany looked imminent, Gandhi offered the following advice to the British people Non-Violence in Peace and War:. You will invite Herr Hitler and Signor Mussolini to take what they want of the countries you call your possessions If these gentlemen choose to occupy your homes, you will vacate them.
If they do not give you free passage out, you will allow yourselves, man, woman, and child, to be slaughtered, but you will refuse to owe allegiance to them.
They should have thrown themselves into the sea from cliffs. However, Gandhi was aware that this level of nonviolence required incredible faith and courage, which he realized not everyone possessed. He therefore advised that everyone need not keep to nonviolence, especially if it were used as a cover for cowardice: It must never be said of the Khudai Khidmatgars that once so brave, they had become or been made cowards under Badshah Khan's influence.
Their bravery consisted not in being good marksmen but in defying death and being ever ready to bare their breasts to the bullets. As a young child, Gandhi experimented with meat-eating. This was due partially to his inherent curiosity as well as his rather persuasive peer and friend Sheikh Mehtab. The idea of vegetarianism is deeply ingrained in Hindu and Jain traditions in India, and, in his native land of Gujarat, most Hindus were vegetarian and so are almost all Jains.
The Gandhi family was no exception. Before leaving for his studies in London, Gandhi made a promise to his mother, Putlibai and his uncle, Becharji Swami that he would abstain from eating meat, taking alcohol, and engaging in promiscuity. He held fast to his promise and gained more than a diet: As Gandhi grew into adulthood, he became a strict vegetarian. He wrote the book The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism and several articles on the subject, some of which were published in the London Vegetarian Society's publication, The Vegetarian.
During this period, the young Gandhi became inspired by many great minds and was befriended by the chairman of the London Vegetarian Society, Dr. Josiah Oldfield. Having also read and admired the work of Henry Stephens Salt, the young Mohandas met and often corresponded with the vegetarian campaigner. Gandhi spent much time advocating vegetarianism during and after his time in London. To Gandhi, a vegetarian diet would not only satisfy the requirements of the body, it would also serve an economic purpose as meat was, and still is, generally more expensive than grains, vegetables, and fruits.
Also, many Indians of the time struggled with low income, thus vegetarianism was seen not only as a spiritual practice but also a practical one. He abstained from eating for long periods, using fasting as a form of political protest. He refused to eat until his death or his demands were met. It was noted in his autobiography that vegetarianism was the beginning of his deep commitment to Brahmacharya; without total control of the palate, his success in Bramacharya would likely falter.
Gandhi had been a fruitarian, but started taking goat's milk on the advice of his doctor. When Gandhi was 16 his father became very ill.
Being very devoted to his parents, he attended to his father at all times during his illness. However, one night, Gandhi's uncle came to relieve Gandhi for a while.
He retired to his bedroom where carnal desires overcame him and he made love to his wife. Shortly afterward a servant came to report that Gandhi's father had just died.
Gandhi felt tremendous guilt and never could forgive himself. He came to refer to this event as "double shame. This decision was deeply influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya — spiritual and practical purity — largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi saw Brahmacharya as a means of becoming close with God and as a primary foundation for self realization. In his autobiography he tells of his battle against lustful urges and fits of jealousy with his childhood bride, Kasturba.
He felt it his personal obligation to remain celibate so that he could learn to love, rather than lust. For Gandhi, Brahmacharya meant "control of the senses in thought, word and deed. Gandhi earnestly believed that a person involved in social service should lead a simple life which he thought could lead to Brahmacharya. His simplicity began by renouncing the western lifestyle he was leading in South Africa. He called it "reducing himself to zero," which entailed giving up unnecessary expenditure, embracing a simple lifestyle and washing his own clothes.
On one occasion he returned the gifts bestowed to him from the natals for his diligent service to the community. Gandhi spent one day of each week in silence. He believed that abstaining from speaking brought him inner peace. This influence was drawn from the Hindu principles of mauna Sanskrit: On such days he communicated with others by writing on paper.
For three and a half years, from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, claiming that the tumultuous state of world affairs caused him more confusion than his own inner unrest. Upon returning to India from South Africa, where he had enjoyed a successful legal practice, he gave up wearing Western-style clothing, which he associated with wealth and success.
Gandhi and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes from thread they themselves spun, and encouraged others to do so.
While Indian workers were often idle due to unemployment, they had often bought their clothing from industrial manufacturers owned by British interests. It was Gandhi's view that if Indians made their own clothes, it would deal an economic blow to the British establishment in India.
Consequently, the spinning wheel was later incorporated into the flag of the Indian National Congress. He subsequently wore a dhoti for the rest of his life to express the simplicity of his life. Gandhi was born a Hindu and practised Hinduism all his life, deriving most of his principles from Hinduism. As a common Hindu, he believed all religions to be equal, and rejected all efforts to convert him to a different faith. He was an avid theologian and read extensively about all major religions.
He had the following to say about Hinduism:. When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and when I see not one ray of light on the horizon, I turn to the Bhagavad Gita, and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow.
My life has been full of tragedies and if they have not left any visible and indelible effect on me, I owe it to the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita. Gandhi Smriti The house Gandhi lodged in the last 4 months of his life has now become a monument, New Delhi.
Gandhi wrote a commentary on the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. The Gujarati manuscript was translated into English by Mahadev Desai, who provided an additional introduction and commentary. It was published with a Foreword by Gandhi in Gandhi believed that at the core of every religion was truth and love compassion, nonviolence and the Golden Rule. He also questioned what he saw as hypocrisy, malpractices, and dogma in all religions, including his own, and he was a tireless advocate for social reform in religion.
Some of his comments on various religions are: Hindu defects were pressingly visible to me. If untouchability could be a part of Hinduism, it could but be a rotten part or an excrescence.
I could not understand the raison d'etre of a multitude of sects and castes. What was the meaning of saying that the Vedas were the inspired Word of God? If they were inspired, why not also the Bible and the Koran?
As Christian friends were endeavouring to convert me, so were Muslim friends. Abdullah Seth had kept on inducing me to study Islam, and of course he had always something to say regarding its beauty. There is no such thing as religion over-riding morality.
Man, for instance, cannot be untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claim to have God on his side. In spite of their deep reverence to each other, Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore engaged in protracted debates more than once. These debates exemplify the philosophical differences between the two most famous Indians at the time. On 15 January , an earthquake hit Bihar and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Gandhi maintained this was because of the sin committed by upper caste Hindus by not letting untouchables in their temples Gandhi was committed to the cause of improving the fate of untouchables, referring to them as Harijans, people of Krishna.
Tagore vehemently opposed Gandhi's stance, maintaining that an earthquake can only be caused by natural forces, not moral reasons, however repugnant the practice of untouchability may be.
Gandhi was a prolific writer. Later Navajivan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters almost every day to individuals and newspapers. He also wrote extensively on vegetarianism, diet and health, religion, social reforms, etc. Gandhi usually wrote in Gujarati, though he also revised the Hindi and English translations of his books.
Gandhi's complete works were published by the Indian government under the name The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi in the s. The writings comprise about 50, pages published in about a hundred volumes. In , a revised edition of the complete works sparked a controversy, as Gandhian followers argue that the government incorporated the changes for political purposes.
The Indian government later withdrew the revised edition. Several biographers have undertaken the task of describing Gandhi's life. Among them, two works stand out: Tendulkar with his Mahatma. Colonel G. Singh from the US Army wrote the book Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity. In the book, G. Singh argues that much of the existing Gandhi literature has promulgated from Gandhi's own autobiographies and there is little critical review of Gandhi's words and actions.
In his thesis built on Gandhi's own words, letters and newspapers columns and his actions, Singh argues that Gandhi had a racial dislike for the native black Africans and later against the white British in India. Singh's later work with Dr. Tim Watson called Gandhi Under Cross Examination argues that Gandhi himself gave various varying accounts of the famous train incident in South Africa and the authors argue that this incident did not happen as understood today.
Christ gave us the goals and Mahatma Gandhi the tactics. Gandhi influenced important leaders and political movements. Gandhi's life and teachings inspired many who specifically referred to Gandhi as their mentor or who dedicated their lives to spreading Gandhi's ideas.
In , notable European physicist Albert Einstein exchanged written letters with Gandhi, and called him "a role model for the generations to come" in a later writing about him. Lanza del Vasto went to India in intending to live with Gandhi; he later returned to Europe to spread Gandhi's philosophy and founded the Community of the Ark in modeled after Gandhi's ashrams.
Madeleine Slade known as "Mirabehn" was the daughter of a British admiral who spent much of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi. In addition, the British musician John Lennon referred to Gandhi when discussing his views on non-violence. Vice-President and environmentalist Al Gore spoke of Gandhi's influence on him.
Throughout my life, I have always looked to Mahatma Gandhi as an inspiration, because he embodies the kind of transformational change that can be made when ordinary people come together to do extraordinary things. That is why his portrait hangs in my Senate office: The centennial commemorative statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center of downtown Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. May 16, Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is a national holiday in India, Gandhi Jayanti.
India observes January 30, the day of his assassination, as Martyr's Day, to commemorate those who gave up their lives in service of the Indian nation. The word Mahatma, while often mistaken for Gandhi's given name in the West, is taken from the Sanskrit words maha meaning Great and atma meaning Soul.
Most sources, such as Dutta and Robinson's Rabindranath Tagore: Other sources state that Nautamlal Bhagavanji Mehta accorded him this title on 21 January In his autobiography, Gandhi nevertheless explains that he never felt worthy of the honour. According to the manpatra, the name Mahatma was given in response to Gandhi's admirable sacrifice in manifesting justice and truth.
Time magazine named Gandhi the Man of the Year in Gandhi was also the runner-up to Albert Einstein as "Person of the Century" at the end of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Government of India awards the annual Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize to distinguished social workers, world leaders and citizens. Nelson Mandela, the leader of South Africa's struggle to eradicate racial discrimination and segregation, is a prominent non-Indian recipient.
Monument of Gandhi in Moscow. In , the Government of India introduced the Mahatma Gandhi series of currency notes in rupees 5, 10, 20, 50, , and denomination.
Today, all the currency notes in circulation in India contain a portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. In , the United Kingdom issued a series of stamps commemorating the centenary of Mahatma Gandhi. The city of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa—where Gandhi was ejected from a first-class train in —now hosts a commemorative statue. There are wax statues of Gandhi at the Madame Tussaud's wax museums in London, New York, and other cities around the world.
Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between and , including the first-ever nomination by the American Friends Service Committee. Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared its regret for the omission, and admitted to deeply divided nationalistic opinion denying the award.
Mahatma Gandhi was to receive the Prize in , but his assassination prevented the award.
The Prize was not awarded in , the year of Gandhi's death, on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year, and when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Prize in , the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi. It preserves the room where Mahatma Gandhi lived the last four months of his life and the grounds where he was shot while holding his nightly public walk.
A Martyr's Column now marks the place where Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated. In countries with a Southern Hemisphere school calendar, it can be observed on 30 March or thereabouts.
Ideals and criticisms Gandhi's rigid ahimsa implies pacifism, and is thus a source of criticism from across the political spectrum. As a rule, Gandhi was opposed to the concept of partition as it contradicted his vision of religious unity. Of the partition of India to create Pakistan, he wrote in Harijan on 6 October Islam stands for unity and the brotherhood of mankind, not for disrupting the oneness of the human family.
Therefore, those who want to divide India into possibly warring groups are enemies alike of India and Islam. They may cut me into pieces but they cannot make me subscribe to something which I consider to be wrong [ Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political rights. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his allies condemned Gandhi, accusing him of politically appeasing Muslims while turning a blind eye to their atrocities against Hindus, and for allowing the creation of Pakistan despite having publicly declared that "before partitioning India, my body will have to be cut into two pieces".
This continues to be politically contentious: Gandhi also expressed his dislike for partition during the late s in response to the topic of the partition of Palestine to create Israel. He stated in Harijan on 26 October Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and persecution of the Jews in Germany.
It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question. My sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions. Through these friends I came to learn much of their age-long persecution. They have been the untouchables of Christianity [ The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me. The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the Jews have hankered after return to Palestine.
Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood? Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French.
It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct. Gandhi also came under some political fire for his criticism of those who attempted to achieve independence through more violent means.
His refusal to protest against the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Udham Singh and Rajguru were sources of condemnation among some parties. Of this criticism, Gandhi stated, "There was a time when people listened to me because I showed them how to give fight to the British without arms when they had no arms A Sourcebook of His Life and Writings.
He offered non-violence as a method of combating the difficulties Jews faced in Germany, stating,. If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest Gentile German might, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment.
And for doing this I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance, but would have confidence that in the end the rest were bound to follow my example.
If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant.
For to the God-fearing, death has no terror. Gandhi was highly criticized for these statements and responded in the article "Questions on the Jews" with "Friends have sent me two newspaper cuttings criticizing my appeal to the Jews.
The two critics suggest that in presenting non- violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new Gandhi's statements regarding Jews facing the impending Holocaust have attracted criticism from a number of commentators.
Martin Buber wrote a sharply critical open letter to Gandhi on 24 February Buber asserted that the comparison between British treatment of Indian subjects and Nazi treatment of Jews was inapposite; moreover, he noted that when Indians were the victims of persecution, Gandhi had, on occasion, supported the use of force.
Gandhi commented upon the s persecution of the Jews in Germany within the context of Satyagraha.
In the November article on the Nazi persecution of the Jews quoted above, he offered non-violence as a solution:. The German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone. And he is doing it with religious zeal. For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter.
The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity. If there ever could be a justifiable war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany, to prevent the wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified. But I do not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is therefore outside my horizon or province. But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany.
How can there be alliance between a nation which claims to stand for justice and democracy and one which is the declared enemy of both? Some of Gandhi's early South African articles are controversial. They are troublesome, very dirty and live almost like animals. We believe also that the white race in South Africa should be the predominating race.
It is worth noting that during Gandhi's time, the term Kaffir had a different connotation than its present-day usage.
Remarks such as these have led some to accuse Gandhi of racism. Gandhi in South Africa, — New Delhi: Manohar, They focus in Chapter 1, "Gandhi, Africans and Indians in Colonial Natal" on the relationship between the African and Indian communities under "White rule" and policies which enforced segregation and, they argue, inevitable conflict between these communities.
Of this relationship they state that, "the young Gandhi was influenced by segregationist notions prevalent in the s. His negative views in the Johannesburg jail were reserved for hardened African prisoners rather than Africans generally.
Former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela is a follower of Gandhi, despite efforts in on the part of Gandhi's critics to prevent the unveiling of a statue of Gandhi in Johannesburg.
Bhana and Vahed commented on the events surrounding the unveiling in the conclusion to The Making of a Political Reformer: In the section "Gandhi's Legacy to South Africa," they note that "Gandhi inspired succeeding generations of South African activists seeking to end White rule. This legacy connects him to Nelson Mandela In response to these two perspectives of Gandhi, Bhana and Vahed argue: