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By 11 March both armies were about a day's march from Badr. Several Muslim warriors including, according to some sources, Ali who had ridden ahead of the main column captured two Meccan water carriers at the Badr wells. Expecting them to say they were with the caravan, the Muslims were horrified to hear them say they were with the main Quraishi army. The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal".
The western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal. When the Muslim army arrived from the east, Muhammad initially chose to form his army at the first well he encountered. Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, however, asked him if this choice was divine instruction or Muhammad's own opinion.
When Muhammad responded in the latter, Hubab suggested that the Muslims occupy the well closest to the Quraishi army, and block off the other ones. Muhammad accepted this decision and moved right away. By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many allies they had scattered throughout the Hijaz.
Besides, it is believed they expected an easy victory, knowing they outnumbered the Muslims by three to one. When the Quraishi reached Juhfah , just south of Badr, they received a message from Abu Sufyan telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca. Abu Jahl wanted to continue, but several of the clans present, including Banu Zuhrah and Banu Adi , promptly went home.
Armstrong suggests they may have been concerned about the power that Abu Jahl would gain from crushing the Muslims. The Banu Hashim tribe wanted to leave, but was threatened by Abu Jahl to stay. At midnight on 13 March, the Quraish broke camp and marched into the valley of Badr.
It had rained the previous day and they struggled to move their horses and camels up the hill of 'Aqanqal. After they descended from 'Aqanqal, the Meccans set up another camp inside the valley.
While they rested, they sent out a scout, Umayr ibn Wahb to reconnoitre the Muslim lines. Umayr reported that Muhammad's army was small, and that there were no other Muslim reinforcements which might join the battle.
The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the Medinan Ansar emerged from the Muslim ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans, who were nervous about starting any unnecessary feuds and only wanted to fight the Quraishi Muslims, keeping the dispute within clan. So Hamza approached forward and called on Ubayda and Ali to join him. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three melee.
The first fight was between Ali and Walid ibn Utba ; Ali killed his opponent. Hamza killed Utba; however, Ubayda was mortally wounded by Shaybah. Ali and, according to some sources, Hamza as well killed Shaybah.
Ali and Hamza then carried Ubayda back into the Muslim lines, where he died. Now both armies began showering each other with arrows. A few Muslims and an unknown number of Quraish warriors were killed.
Before the battle, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack first with their ranged weapons and only afterwards advance to engage the Quraish with melee weapons.
Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces! The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon.
After the battle Muhammad returned to Medina. Some seventy prisoners were taken captive and are noted to have been treated humanely including a number of Quraish leaders. It is not surprising that when, some time afterwards, their friends came to ransom them, several of the prisoners who had been thus received declared themselves adherents of Islam Their kindly treatment was thus prolonged, and left a favourable impression on the minds even of those who did not at once go over to Islam" .
The Battle of Badr was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century.
The first was Muhammad, who was transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr forced the other Arabs to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige and the political role of the [Quraish].
At the same time Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy , Muhammad's chief opponent in Medina, found his own position seriously weakened. Henceforth, he would only be able to mount limited challenges to Muhammad. The other major beneficiary of the Battle of Badr was Abu Sufyan, safely away from the battle leading the caravan. The death of Amr ibn Hashim, as well as many other Quraishi nobles  gave Abu Sufyan the opportunity, almost by default, to become chief of the Quraish.
As a result, when Muhammad marched into Mecca six years later, it was Abu Sufyan who helped negotiate its peaceful surrender. Abu Sufyan subsequently became a high-ranking official in the Muslim Empire, and his son Muawiya would later go on to found the Umayyad Caliphate.
In later days, the battle of Badr became so significant that Ibn Ishaq included a complete name-by-name roster of the Muslim army in his biography of Muhammad. In many hadiths, veterans who fought at Badr are identified as such as a formality, and they may have even received a stipend in later years.
As Paul K. Davis sums up, "Mohammed's victory confirmed his authority as leader of Islam; by impressing local tribes that joined him, the expansion of Islam began. The Battle of Badr is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Quran.
It is even mentioned by name as part of a comparison with the Battle of Uhud. Al Imran 3: Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: According to Abdullah Yusuf Ali , the term "gratitude" may be a reference to discipline. At Badr, the Muslim forces had allegedly maintained firm discipline, whereas at Uhud they broke ranks to pursue the Meccans, allowing Meccan cavalry to flank and rout their army.
The idea of Badr as a furqan, an Islamic miracle, is mentioned again in the same surah. One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own eyes Twice their number.
But Allah doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning for such as have eyes to see. Badr is also the subject of Sura 8: Al-Anfal , which details military conduct and operations. Though the Sura does not name Badr, it describes the battle, and several of the verses are commonly thought to have been from or shortly after the battle.
Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that Uthman did not join the battle:. Sahih al-Bukhari , 4: It also mentions the war booty that each fighter who participated in the battle received in Sahih al-Bukhari , 5: It is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawood , There is also a narration of the Battle in Kitab al-Kafi , a primary source of Shi'a Hadith, where Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin describes the participation of the angels in the battle:.
The incident is also mentioned in Ibn Ishaq 's biography of Muhammad. Iranian offensive operations against Iraq in the late s were also named after Badr. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The writing is Ottoman Naskh. Campaigns of Muhammad. Main article: List of participants at the Battle of Badr. Further information: Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage.
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Culture and society. Related topics. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The plural and adjective are Quraishi. The terms "Quraishi" and "Meccan" are used interchangeably between the Hijra in and the Muslim Conquest of Mecca in By Herbert Berg.
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