Quality Management thinking has influenced a revolution in the way Get ahead at work with our collection of personal development eBooks. Quality Management eBook - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Total Quality management book with emphasis on over all. Book Description - ISBN (52 Pages) This eBook describes the process managing project quality. Every organization has its own predefined .
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The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook: A Quick Reference Guide to Nearly Tools for Improving Quality and Speed. The Balanced Scorecard is the leading methodology for implementing performance management systems and improving efficiency. Six Sigma Workbook For Dummies. Six Sigma can easily be integrated into quality management efforts. Integrating Six. Sigma into the TQM program facilitates process improvement through. Download free eBooks at piccologellia.info Click on the ad to read more. Quality Management. 4. Contents. Contents. 1. Introduction. 9. 2. Background and History.
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The author, an ex-leading general manager of TQM promotion division of Toyota Motor Corporation, shows how to align them to develop competitive quality throughout the business process that covers from the creation of product concept through manufacturing and selling to delivery to clients by actual cases.
Readers will find not only quality related practices, but also the linking capability executing the practices. They will understand the capability consists of scientific, behavioral and organizational insights into quality. Also, cautious readers will recognize or become aware of another important factors not mentioned explicitly to achieve real TQM. TQM is really management itself.
This eBook, in this sense, is also strongly recommended to senior managers including top who are not directly involved in so-called quality management because quality is the outcome of the dynamics of most activities of the company as well as kernel part of competitiveness.
The content is such stuff as the company's competitive quality is made on. When we loose our passion for science—our inquisitiveness—we often end up postponing problems that need to be addressed, wasting time with constant trial-and-error efforts.
The result is that the same problems occur over and over again as we get caught up in the work right in front of us. The number of task supervisors increases and the organization as a whole loses its drive to come out on top—and actions without substance begin to pervade the company.
When we look at the quality management issues that have faced both Japan and the rest of the world recently, it is clear that a next-generation quality management technology, featuring a rational overhaul that will motivate people and revitalize organizations, is urgently needed. Japanese corporations—who by all rights should be leading global production—are seeing an increase in recalls.
They seem to be losing a grip on the scientific quality management methods that were once an exclusive feature of Japanese quality management practices. These are warning signs that existing quality management technology must be reinforced.
In order to put a stop to empty imitation and keep pace with advancing technology, now is the time to reformulate the principles of quality management—those that have led the world and are uniquely Japanese—into a new quality management principle that will take hold in the next generation.
Home eBooks Bookshelf by Title by Subject. Baselines are established and consistently maintained for use in subsequent baseline development and control. Software configuration identification is consistent and accurate with respect to the numbering or naming of computer programs, software modules, software units, and associated software documents.
Configuration control is maintained such that the software configuration used in critical phases of testing, acceptance, and delivery is compatible with the associated documentation. Software configuration authentication is established by a series of configuration reviews and audits that exhibit the performance required by the software requirements specification and the configuration of the software is accurately reflected in the software design documents.
Software development libraries provide for proper handling of software code, documentation, media, and related data in their various forms and versions from the time of their initial approval or acceptance until they have been incorporated into the final media.
Approved changes to baselined software are made properly and consistently in all products, and no unauthorized changes are made. The SQA role in formal testing is described in the next section. The SQA role in reviews, inspections, and walkthroughs is to observe, participate as needed, and verify that they were properly conducted and documented. SQA also ensures that any actions required are assigned, documented, scheduled, and updated. Formal software reviews should be conducted at the end of each phase of the life cycle to identify problems and determine whether the interim product meets all applicable requirements.
A review looks at the overall picture of the product being developed to see if it satisfies its requirements. In formal reviews, actual work done is compared with established standards. SQA's main objective in reviews is to assure that the Management and Development Plans have been followed, and that the product is ready to proceed with the next phase of development.
Although the decision to proceed is a management decision, SQA is responsible for advising management and participating in the decision. An inspection or walkthrough is a detailed examination of a product on a step-by- step or line-of-code by line-of-code basis to find errors.
For inspections and walkthroughs, SQA assures, at a minimum, that the process is properly completed and that needed follow-up is done. The inspection process may be used to measure compliance to standards. SQA assures that formal software testing, such as acceptance testing, is done in accordance with plans and procedures. SQA reviews testing documentation for completeness and adherence to standards. The documentation review includes test plans, test specifications, test procedures, and test reports.
SQA monitors testing and provides follow-up on nonconformances. By test monitoring, SQA assures software completeness and readiness for delivery.
The correct or "advertised" version of the software is being tested by SQA monitoring of the CM activity. Nonconformances occurring during testing that is, any incident not expected in the test procedures are noted and recorded. Software testing verifies that the software meets its requirements.
The quality of testing is assured by.
In addition to the general activities described in subsections C and D, there are phase-specific SQA activities that should be conducted during the Software Acquisition Life Cycle.
At the conclusion of each phase, SQA concurrence is a key element in the management decision to initiate the following life cycle phase. Suggested activities for each phase are described below. SQA should be involved in both writing and reviewing the Management Plan in order to assure that the processes, procedures, and standards identified in the plan are appropriate, clear, specific, and auditable.
During the software requirements phase, SQA assures that software requirements are complete, testable, and properly expressed as functional, performance, and interface requirements. As a minimum, SQA activities during the software acceptance and delivery phase include assuring the performance of a final configuration audit to demonstrate that all deliverable items are ready for delivery.
During this phase, there will be mini-development cycles to enhance or correct the software. During these development cycles, SQA conducts the appropriate phase- specific activities described above. Techniques and Tools SQA should evaluate its needs for assurance tools versus those available off-the- shelf for applicability to the specific project, and must develop the others it requires.
Useful tools might include audit and inspection checklists and automatic code standards analyzers. Common-Cause Variation: Any normal variation inherent in a work process. See also Special-Cause Variation.
Unnecessary work; any activity that makes a work process more complicated without adding value to the resulting product or service. Continuous Improvement Process: The ongoing enhancement of work processes for the benefit of the customer and the organization; activities devoted to maintaining and improving work process performance through small and gradual improvements as well as radical innovations.
Control Chart: A line graph that identifies the variation occurring in a work process over time; helps distinguish between common-cause variation and special-cause variation. Cost of Quality: A term used by many organizations to quantify the costs associated with producing quality products. Typical factors taken into account are prevention costs training, work process analyses, design reviews, customer surveys , appraisal costs inspection and testing , and failure costs rework, scrap, customer complaints, returns.
Cross Functional: Involving the cooperation of two or more departments within the organization e. Any person or group inside or outside the organization who receives a product or service. Customer Expectations: The "needs" and "wants" of a customer that define "quality" in a specified product or service. Deming Cycle also known as Shewart's Wheel: A model that describes the cyclical interaction of research, sales, design, and production as a continuous work flow, so that all functions are involved constantly in the effort to provide products and services that satisfy customers and contribute to improved quality.
See also PDCA. Department Improvement Team: Made up of all members of a department and usually chaired by the manager or supervisor, department improvement teams function as a vehicle for all employees to continuously participate in ongoing quality improvement activities. Includes top executives and is chaired by the CEO; encourages and participates in a quality initiative by reviewing, approving, and implementing improvement activities.
Juran's definition of quality suggesting that products and services need to serve customers' needs, instead of meeting internal requirements only. A group of people with representation from all functions in the organization, usually drawn from management levels, chartered to develop and monitor a quality improvement process in their own functions. This group is often responsible for deciding which improvement projects or work processes will be addressed and in what priority.
Internal Customer: Anyone in the organization who relies on you for a product or service. See also Customer. Internal Supplier: Anyone in the organization you rely on for a product or service. See also Supplier. Juran Trilogy: The interrelationship of three basic managerial processes with which to manage quality, quality control, and quality improvement. A method of production and inventory cost control based on delivery of parts and supplies at the precise time they are needed in a production process.
Japanese term meaning continuous improvement involving everyone- managers and employees alike.
Key Expectations: The requirements concerning a specified product or service that a customer holds to be most important. PDCA Cycle: An adaptation of the Deming Cycle, which stresses that every improvement activity, can best be accomplished by the following steps: See Deming Cycle.
Process Improvement Team: Includes experienced employees from different departments who solve problems and improve work processes that go across- functional lines. Well-known definitions include:. Quality Circle: A small group of employees organized to solve work-related problems; often voluntarily; usually not chaired by a department manager.
Quality Initiative: A formal effort by an organization to improve the quality of its products and services; usually involves top management development of a mission statement and long-term strategy.
Special-Cause Variation: Any violation arising from circumstances that are not a normal part of the work process. See also Common-Cause Variation. Any person or group inside or outside the organization that produces a product or service. Suppliers improve quality by identifying customer expectations and adjusting work processes so that products and services meet or exceed those expectations. Task Force: An ad hoc, cross-functional team formed to resolve a major problem as quickly as possible; usually includes subject matter experts temporarily relieved of their regular duties.
A management approach advocating the involvement of all employees in the continuous improvement process-not-just quality control specialists. Work Partnership: A mutually beneficial work relationship between internal and external customers and suppliers.
Work Process: A series of work steps that produce a particular product or service for the customer. Zero Defects: An approach to quality based on prevention of errors; often adopted as a standard for performance or a definition of quality notably in Crosby Quality Training. Software Quality Factors A software quality factor is a non-functional requirement for a software program which is not called up by the customer's contract, but nevertheless is a desirable requirement which enhances the quality of the software program.
Understandability is possessed by a software product if the purpose of the product is clear. This goes further than just a statement of purpose - all of the design and user documentation must be clearly written so that it is easily understandable.
This is obviously subjective in that the user context must be taken into account, i. A software product possesses the characteristic completeness to the extent that all of its parts are present and each of its parts is fully developed.
This means that if the code calls a sub-routine from an external library, the software package must provide reference to that library and all required parameters must be passed.
All required input data must be available. A software product possesses the characteristic conciseness to the extent that no excessive information is present.
This is important where memory capacity is limited, and it is important to reduce lines of code to a minimum. It can be improved by replacing repeated functionality by one sub-routine or function which achieves that functionality.
It also applies to documents.
A software product possesses the characteristic portability to the extent that it can be operated easily and well on computer configurations other than its current one. This is particularly important with PC applications where, for example, a product is expected to work on all processors.
A software product possesses the characteristic maintainability to the extent that it facilitates updating to satisfy new requirements. Thus the software product which is maintainable should be well-documented, not complex, and should have spare capacity for memory usage and processor speed. A software product possesses the characteristic testability to the extent that it facilitates the establishment of acceptance criteria and supports evaluation of its performance.
Such a characteristic must be built-in during the design phase if the product is to be easily testable - a complex design leads to poor testability. A software product possesses the characteristic usability to the extent that it is convenient and practicable to use.
This is affected by such things as the human-computer interface. The component of the software which has most impact on this is the graphical user interface GUI. A software product possesses the characteristic reliability to the extent that it can be expected to perform its intended functions satisfactorily. This implies a time factor in that a reliable product is expected to perform correctly over a period of time.
It also encompasses environmental considerations in that the. Capability Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model CMM is a process capability maturity model which aids in the definition and understanding of an organisation's processes. The CMM was originally intended as a tool for objectively assessing the ability of government contractors' processes to perform a contracted software project.
Though it comes from the area of software development, it can be and has been and still is being applied as a generally applicable model to assist in understanding the process capability maturity of organisations in diverse areas.
For example, software engineering, system engineering, project management, risk management, system acquisition, information technology IT , personnel management. It has been used extensively for avionics software and government projects around the world. Other maturity models such as ISM3 have also emerge. Maturity Model A maturity model is a structured collection of elements that describe certain aspects of maturity in an organization.
A maturity model may provide, for example:. A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for assessing different organizations for equivalent comparison. The model describes the maturity of the company based upon the project the company is handling and the related clients.
It is a layered framework providing a progression to the discipline needed to engage in continuous improvement It is important to state here that an organization develops the ability to assess the impact of a new practice, technology, or tool on their activity. Hence it is not a matter of adopting these, rather it is a matter of determining how innovative efforts influence existing practices.
This really empowers projects, teams, and organizations by giving them the foundation to support reasoned choice. A Key Process Area KPA identifies a cluster of related activities that, when performed collectively, achieve a set of goals considered important. The goals of a key process area summarize the states that must exist for that key process area to have been implemented in an effective and lasting way.
The extent to which the goals have been accomplished is an indicator of how much capability the organization has established at that maturity level. The goals signify the scope, boundaries, and intent of each key process area. Common features include practices that implement and institutionalize a key process area. These five types of common features include: The key practices describe the elements of infrastructure and practice that contribute most effectively to the implementation and institutionalization of the key process areas.
While not rigorous, the empirical evidence to date supports this belief. At maturity level 1, processes are usually not documented and change based on the user or event. The organization does not have a stable environment and may not know or understand all of the components that make up the environment. As a result, success in these organizations depends on the institutional knowledge, the competence and heroics of the people in the organization, and the level of effort expended by the team.
In spite of this chaotic environment, maturity level 1 organizations often produce products and services; however, they frequently exceed the budget and schedule of their projects. Due to the lack of formality, level 1 organizations, often over commit, abandon processes during a crisis, and are unable to repeat past successes. There is very little planning and executive buy-in for projects and process acceptance is limited.
IT organizations at level 1 are often seen as a service instead of a partner. At maturity level 2, some software development processes are repeatable, possibly with consistent results. It isn't good enough just to say that you wish to make the product to 'as high of a standard as possible'. Quality is forever linked to cost, and so you must take your project budget into consideration as part of this planning process.
Certainly you would use the best possible materials available if you can afford them, but the product must be cost-effective to be of any use to the company. The process of planning quality can be complex because it has to balance the interests of overall quality with the reality of a budget and is an essential part of project communication throughout the project life cycle.
One of the important parts of this stage of the process is outlining exactly how quality is going to be measured during the project.
Being specific with what exactly will define quality for your project goes a long way toward making the next steps in project quality management easier and more effective. Performing Quality Assurance Now that your quality plan is in place, the next step is outlining how you are successfully going to meet that plan and put it into action.
The methods that you intend to use during the project itself need to align with the quality goals that have been outlined previously. Toward this end, experience can be greatly beneficial to understanding what kind of processes lead to quality results.
If you have people within your organization who have done this kind of work before and can offer direction in terms of quality assurance , it is greatly important to use that knowledge to your advantage. You don't want to be making quality assurance adjustments 'on the fly'. Every bit of time that is put into a project is directly associated with a cost, so wasting time is only going to increase the overall expense of the project in the end. Rather than having to scramble mid-project to make quality adjustments, putting a structured, independent review as part of your project quality assurance is essential.
These quality audits will determine the 'fit' of project activities to the policies of project and its organization. Controlling Quality This is what happens once the project is underway. All of the great planning that has already been done won't do you any good if it isn't adhered to closely along the way.
Quality control might be the most important piece of the whole project quality management puzzle because correcting any problems as soon as possible will save you wasted time and money down the line. Testing is probably going to be the biggest piece of quality control for most organizations. There are a variety of tools and techniques that can be used to monitor and control quality of work packages and activities throughout the project.
This includes such tools as: If you are developing a new product that you intend to take to market at the completion of the project, it should be tested throughout to make sure it is tracking properly with the guidelines that you have set up. If the tests of the product aren't meeting your expectations, you will know that something needs to be fixed or improved in order to improve quality.
In many ways, the longevity of your organization may be determined by how well you handle project quality management for each new initiative that is undertaken. Organizations that routinely produce low-quality goods are rarely in business for long, even if they are trying to compete at a low price point.